Grossnickle, D., W. Brightly, L. Weaver, K. Stanchak, R. Roston, S. Pevsner, T. Stayton, P. D. Polly, C. Law. 2024. Challenges and advances in methods for measuring phenotypic convergence. Evolution (doi: 10.1093/evolut/qpae081). [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2024. Macroevolution and Quantitative Genetics. In C. Russo and J. Wolf (eds.), Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology, 2nd Edition. Elsevier/Academic Press, Amsterdam (doi: 10.1016/B978-0-443-15750-9.00016-1). [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2024. Book Review: Evolution of Cenozoic land mammal faunas and ecosystems: 25 years of the NOW database of fossil mammals.  Historical Biology (doi: 10.1080/08912963.2024.2357603) [PDF

Ehrie, A., A. Iruri-Tucker, Y. Lord, H. Williamson, K. Hunt, P. D. Polly, C. Fitzpatrick, and M. Wasserman. 2024. Measuring Mantled Howler Monkey (Alouatta palliata) testes via parallel laser photogrammetry: expanding the use of non-invasive methods. American Journal of Primatology, 86: e23616, 1-10. (doi: 10.1002/ajp.23616). [PDF]


Polly, P. D. 2023.  Extinction and morphospace occupation: A critical review.  Cambridge Prisms: Extinction, 1, e17: 1-9 (doi: 10.1017/ext.2023.16). [PDF]

Short, R. A., J. L. McGuire, P. D. Polly, and A. M. Lawing. 2023. Trophically integrated ecometric models as tools for demonstrating spatial and temporal functional changes in mammalian communities.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 120(7): e2201947120 (doi: 10.1073/pnas.2201947120). [PDF]

Kort, A. E. and P. D. Polly. 2023. Allometry then locomotor diversification shaped lumbar morphology in early placental mammals. Evolutionary Journal of the Linnean Society, 2: kzad004, 1-11 (doi: 10.1093/evolinnean/kzad004). [PDF]

Pearson, A. and P. D. Polly.  2023.  Temporal lobe evolution in extant and fossil Cercopithecoidea.  Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 30: 683-694.  (doi: 10.1007/s10914-023-09664-6) [PDF]

Pearson, A., P. D. Polly, E. Brunner. 2023. Updated imaging and phylogenetic comparative methods reassess relative temporal lobe size in anthropoids and modern humans. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 180: 768-776 (doi: 10.1002/ajpa.24712). [PDF]

Gündüz, I., S. Demirtaş, M. Silsüpür, M. Özmen, P. D. Polly, D. T. Bilton. 2023. Notes from the Anatolian underground: two new mole taxa from eastern Turkey, together with a revised phylogeny of the genus Talpa (Mammalia: Talpidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 199: 567-593. (doi: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlad049). [PDF]

Raup’s shell coiling space mapped onto a geometric morphometric morphospace (from Polly, 2023). 


Mo, J. and P. D. Polly. 2022. The role of dispersal, selection intensity, and extirpation risk in resilience to climate change: a trait-based modeling approach. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 31: 1184-1193 (10.1111/geb.13495). [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2022. The politics of public land management: the creation, reduction and restoration of Grand Staircase-Escalante and Bears Ears National Monuments. Geological Curator, 11(7): 436-453 (doi: 10.55468/GC1460). [PDF]

O'Keefe, R., J. Meachen, and P. D. Polly. 2022. On information rank deficiency in phenotypic covariance matrices. Systematic Biology, 71: 810-822 (10.1093/sysbio/syab088). [PDF]

Hebdon, N., P. D. Polly, D. J. Peterman, K. A. Ritterbush. 2022. Detecting mismatch in functional narratives of animal morphology: a test case with fossils. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 62: 817-828 (10.1093/icb/icac034). [PDF]

Camargo, I., S. T. Àlvarez-Castañeda, P. D. Polly, J. D. Stuhler, J. E. Maldonado. 2022. Molecular phylogenetic and taxonomic status of the large-eared desert shrew Notiosorex evotis (Eulipothyphla: Soricidae). Journal of Mammalogy (10.1093/jmammal/gyac069). [PDF]

Kort, A., H. Ahrens, P. D. Polly, and M. Morlo. 2022 (early online). Postcrania and paleobiology of Patriofelis ulta (Mammalia, Oxyaenodonta) of the Bridgerian (Early-Middle Eocene) of North America. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 41: e2045491 (10.1080/02724634.2021.2045491) [winner of Best Student Article in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology for 2022]. [PDF]

Estimation of shift in ammonite swimming performance between Late Triassic and Early Jurassic (from Hebdon et al. 2022).


Rhoda, D, P.D. Polly, C. Raxworthy, M. Segall.  2021. Morphological integration and modularity of the hyperkinetic feeding system of aquatic-foraging snakes. Evolution, 75: 56-72 (10.1111/evo.14130).  [PDF]

Singh, D., S. Reed, A. Kimmitt, K. Alford, C. Stricker, P.D. Polly, and E. Ketterson. 2021. Breeding at higher latitude is associated with higher photoperiod threshold and delayed reproductive development in a songbird. Hormones and Behavior, 128: 104907 (10.1016/j.yhbeh.2020.104907). [PDF]

Cardini, A., S. Elton, K.F. Kovarovic, U.S. Viðarsdóttir, and P.D. Polly.  2021.  Impact of sampling error on the assessment of morphospecies using geometric morphometrics in primates and other mammals.  Evolutionary Biology, 48: 190-220 (10.1007/s11692-021-09531-3). [PDF]

Franco-Moreno, R. A., P. D. Polly, V. Toro-Ibacache, G. Hernández-Carmona, R. Aguilar-Medrano, E. Marín-Enríquez, and V. H. Cruz-Escalano. 2021. Bite force in four pinniped species from the west coast of Baja California, Mexico, in relation to diet, feeding strategy, and niche differentiation. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 28: 307-321 (10.1007/s10914-020-09524-7).  [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2021. Remember to chew your food: new paradigms for the evolution of mastication. Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 28: 1017-1019. [PDF]

Pearson, A., P. D. Polly, and E. Bruner. 2021. Temporal lobe evolution in Javanese Homo erectus and African Homo ergaster: inferences from the cranial base. Quaternary International, 603: 5-21 (10.1016/j.quaint.2020.07.048). [PDF]

Diagram showing estimation of loads of temporalis and masseter muscles (from Franco-Moreno et al., 2021).


Polly, P. D. 2020. Functional tradeoffs carry phenotypes across the valley of the shadow of death. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 60: 1268-1282 (10.1093/icb/icaa092). [PDF]

Polly P. D. 2020. Ecometrics and Neogene faunal turnover: the roles of cats and hindlimb morphology in the assembly of carnivoran communities in the New World. Geodiversitas, 42: 257-304. [PDF]

Travis, J., F. W. Allendorf, L. Cortés-Ortiz, M. Culver, D. P. Genereux, K. Harris, E. A. Ostrander, P. D. Polly, A. Stone. 2020. A research strategy to examine the taxonomy of the Red Wolf. A Consensus Study Report of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (10.17226/25891). [PDF]

Fuentes-Gonzalez, J. A., P. D. Polly, and E. P. Martins. 2020. A Bayesian extension of phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS): incorporating uncertainty in the comparative study of trait relationships and evolutionary rates. Evolution, 74: 311-325. [PDF]

Phillips, R. P. L. Brandt, P. D. Polly, P. Zollner, M. R. Saunders, K. Clay, L. Iverson, S. Fei. 2020. Towards an improved understanding of the ecological consequences of climate change for Indiana forests. Climate Change, 163: 1917-1931 (10.1007/s10584-018-2326-8). [PDF]

Cardini, A. and P. D. Polly. 2020. Cross-validated between group PCA scatterplots: a solution to spurious group separation? Evolutionary Biology, 47: 85-95 (10.1007/s11692-020-09494-x). [PDF]

Pearson, A., P. D. Polly, E. Bruner. 2020. Is the middle cranial fossa a reliable predictor of temporal lobe volume in extant and fossil anthropoids? American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 172: 698-713 (10.1002/ajpa.24053) [PDF]

A research strategy to examine the taxonomy of the Red Wolf (Travis et al., 2020).
Simulation of functional trade-offs from gene flow between environments with different selective optima (from Polly, 2020).


Polly, P. D. 2019. Spatial processes and evolutionary models: a critical review. Palaeontology, 62: 175-195. (10.1111/pala.12410) [PDF] [associated data and animations]

Searle, J. B., P. D. Polly, and J. Zima.  2019.  Shrews, Chromosomes, and Speciation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.  [link to publisher]

Polly, P.D. and J. M. Wojcik. 2019. Geometric morphometric tests for phenotypic divergence between chromosome races. Pp. 336-364 in J. B. Searle, J. Zima, and P. D. Polly (eds.), Shrews, Chromosomes and Speciation. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, United Kingdom (10.1017/9780511895531.011). [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2019. Climate, diversification, and refugia in the common shrew: evidence from the fossil record. Pp. 407-454 in J. B. Searle, J. Zima, and P. D. Polly (eds), Shrews, Chromosomes and Speciation. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, United Kingdom (10.1017/9780511895531.014). [PDF]

Searle, J. B., J. Zima, and P. D. Polly. 2019. Shrews, chromosomes, and speciation. Pp. 455-462 in J. B. Searle, J. Zima, and P. D. Polly (eds), Shrews, Chromosomes and Speciation. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, United Kingdom (10.1017/9780511895531.015). 

Goswami, A., A. Watanabe, R. N. Felice, C. Bardua, A.-C. Fabre, and P. D. Polly. 2019. High-density morphometric analysis of shape and integration: the good, the bad, and the not-really-a-problem. Integrative and Comparative Biology, 59: 669-683. (10.1093/icb/icz120) [PDF]

Lintulaakso, K., J. Eronen, and P. D. Polly. 2019. Land mammals form eight functionally and climatically distinct faunas in North America but none in Europe. Journal of Biogeography, 46: 185-195. [PDF]

Topalov, K., A. Schimmelmann, P. D. Polly, P. E. Sauer, and S. Viswanathan. 2019.  Stable isotopes of H, C and N in mice bone collagen as a reflection of isotopically controlled food and water intake. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies, 55: 129-149 (10.1080/10256016.2019.1580279). [PDF]

Study of the role of glacial cycles, genetics, ecology, and morphology in the process of speciation, from Cambridge University Press.
Geographic variation in fossilizeable traits in two living mammal species (from Polly, 2019).


Jones, K. E., K. D. Angielczyk, P. D. Polly, J. J. Head, V. Fernandez, J. Lungmus, S. Tulga, and S. E. Pierce.  2018. Fossils reveal the complex evolutionary history of the mammalian regionalized spine.  Science, 361: 1249-1252. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. and O. B. Mock. 2018 (online 2017). Heritability: the link between development and the microevolution of molar tooth form. Historical Biology, 30: 53-63. [PDF]

Phillips, R. P., Fei, S., Brandt, L., Polly, P. D., Zollner, P., Saunders, M. R., Clay, K., Iverson, L., Widhalm, M., and J. S. Dukes. 2018. Indiana’s Future Forests: A Report from the Indiana Climate Change Impacts Assessment. Purdue Climate Change Research Center. West Lafayette, Indiana. [PDF]

Parzer, H., P. D. Polly, and A. P. Moczek. 2018. The evolution of trait size and shape: insights from the genitalia of dung beetles. Development, Genes, and Evolution, 228: 83-93. [PDF]

Ascari, S., P. D. Polly, J. K. Njau, P. E. Sauer, and Y. Peng. 2018. Fossil herbivores and crocodiles as paleoclimatic indicators of environmental shifts from Bed I and Bed II times of the Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 511: 550-557. [PDF]

Vermillion, W. A., P. D. Polly, J. J. Head, J. T. Eronen, and A. M. Lawing. 2018. Ecometrics: a trait-based approach to paleoclimate and paleoenvironment reconstruction. Pp. 373-394 in D.A. Croft, S.W. Simpson, and D.F. Su (eds.), Methods in Paleoecology: Reconstructing Cenozoic Terrestrial Environments and Ecological Communities. Springer, Dordrecht. [PDF]

Zimmerman, A. N., C. C. Johnson, and P. D. Polly. 2018. Taxonomic and evolutionary pattern revisions resulting from geometric morphometric analysis of Pennsylvanian Neognathodus conodonts, Illinois Basin. Paleobiology, 44: 660-683. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2018. Geometric morphometrics. In S. López-Varela (ed.), The SAS Encyclopedia of Archaeological Sciences. Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK. (10.1002/9781119188230.saseas0258) [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2018.  Marsupial responses to global aridification.  Tooth evolution in Australian kangaroos was a late response to climate change in the Neogene. Science, 362: 25-26. [PDF]

Evolution of regionalization and the origin of mammals (from Jones et al., 2018).


Polly, P. D., J. Fuentes-Gonzales, A. M. Lawing, A. K. Bormet, and R. G. Dundas. 2017. Clade sorting has a greater effect than local adaptation on ecometric patterns in Carnivora. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 18: 61-95. [PDF] [Appendix 1][Appendix 2]

Polly, P. D. and G. J. Motz. 2017. Patterns and processes in morphospace: geometric morphometrics of three-dimensional objects. In: L. Tapanila and I. Rahman (eds.), Virtual Paleontology. The Paleontological Society Papers22: 71-99. [PDF]

Gomez-Robles, A., J. B. Smaers, R. L. Holloway, P. D. Polly, and B. Wood. 2017. Brain enlargement and dental reduction were not linked in hominin evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114: 468-473. [PDF][Supplemental file]

Barnosky, A. D., E. A. Hadly, P. Gonzalez, J. J. Head, P. D. Polly, A. M. Lawing, J. T. Eronen, et al. 2017. Merging paleontology with conservation biology to guide the future of terrestrial ecosystems. Science, 355: eaah4787. [PDF]

Lawing, A. M., J. T. Eronen, J. L. Blois, C. Graham, and P. D. Polly. 2017. Community functional trait composition and the effects of non-ecological processes. Ecography, 39: 1-13. [PDF]

Polly P.D. 2017. Morphometrics and evolution: the challenge of crossing rugged phenotypic landscapes with straight paths. Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding, 21: 452-461. [PDF]

Schnitzler, J., C. Theis, P. D. Polly, and J. T. Eronen. 2017. Fossils matter - understanding modes and rates of trait evolution in Musteloidea (Carnivora). Evolutionary Ecology Research, 18: 187-200. [PDF]

Hypothetical effects of two non-linear genetic factors on one component of a multivariate phenotypic trait (from Polly, 2017).


Polly, P. D., C. T. Stayton, E. R. Dumont, S. E. Pierce, E. J. Rayfield, and K. Angielczyk. 2016. Combining geometric morphometrics and finite element analysis with evolutionary modeling: towards a synthesis. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, e1111225: 1-29. [PDF] [Supplemental files in zip format]

Polly, P. D., J. T. Eronen, A. M. Lawing, and J. Schnitzler. 2016. Processes of ecometric patterning: modelling functional traits, environments, and clade dynamics in deep time. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 118: 39-63. [PDF] [Supplemental files in zip format, 30 Mb]

Polly, P. D. 2016. Quantitative genetics and macroevolution. In R. M. Kliman (ed.), Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology. Elsevier/Academic Press, Amsterdam. Pp. 409-417. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2016. Quantitative genetics provides predictive power for paleontological studies of morphological evolution. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences, 113: 9142-9144.  [PDF]

Lawing, A. M., P. D. Polly, D. K. Hews, and E. P. Martins. 2016. Including fossils in phylogenetic climate reconstructions: a deep time perspective on the climatic niche evolution and diversification of Spiny Lizards (Sceloperus). American Naturalist, 188: 133-148. [PDF]

Goswami, A., M. Randau, P. D. Polly, V. Weisbecker, C. V. Bennett, L. Hautier, and M. R. Sánchez-Villagra. 2016. Do developmental constraints and high integration limit the evolution of the marsupial oral apparatus? Integrative and Comparative Biology, 56: 369-372.  [PDF]

Modelling experiment showing that ancestral environments influence the evolution of functional traits in a geographically complex selectional environment (from Polly et al., 2016).


Head, J. J. and P. D. Polly. 2015. Evolution of the snake body form reveals homoplasy in amniote Hox gene function. Nature, 520: 86-89. [PDF][Supplemental files]

Polly, P. D. and J. J. Head. 2015. Measuring Earth-life transitions: ecometric analysis of functional traits from late Cenozoic vertebrates. In P. D. Polly, J. J. Head, and D. L. Fox (eds.), Earth-Life Transitions: Paleobiology in the Context of Earth System Evolution. The Paleontological Society Papers, 21: 21-46. Yale Press, New Haven, CT. [PDF]

Polly, P. D., A. Cardini, E. B. Davis, and S. Steppan. 2015. Marmot evolution and global change in the past 10 million years. Pp. 246-276 in P. G. Cox and L. Hautier (eds.), Evolution of the Rodents: Advances in Phylogeny, Palaeontology and Functional Morphology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. [PDF]

Polly, P.D. 2015. Gene networks, occlusal clocks, and functional patches: new understanding of pattern and process in the evolution of the dentition. Odontology, 103: 117-125. [PDF]

Cardini, A., P.D. Polly, R. Dawson, and N. Milne. 2015. Why the long face? Kangaroos and wallabies follow the same 'rule' of cranial evolutionary allometry (CREA) as placentals. Evolutionary Biology, 42: 169-176. [PDF]

Aguilar-Medrano, R., H. Reyes-Bonilla, and P. D. Polly.  2015.  Adaptive radiation of damselfish (Perciformes, Pomacentridae) in the eastern Pacific.  Marine Biology, 162: 2291-2303. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2015. The antecedents of punctuated equilibrium. Review of Eternal Ephemera by Niles Eldredge. Evolution, 69: 3021-3022. [PDF]

Ksepka, D. T., J. F. Parham, J. F. Allman, M. J. Benton, M. T. Carrano, K. A. Cranston, P. C. J. Donoghue, J. J. Head, E. J. Hermsen, R. B. Irmis, W. G. Joyce, M. Kohli, K. S. Lamm, D. Leehr, J. S. L. Patané, P. D. Polly, M. J. Phillips, N. A. Smith, N. D. Smith, M. Van Tuinen, J.L. Ware, and R.C.M. Warnock. 2015. The Fossil Calibration Database, a new resource for divergence dating. Systematic Biology, 64: 853-859. [PDF]

Modelling experiment showing that ancestral environments influence the evolution of functional traits in a geographically complex Probability of climate in North America, probability of a jaguar given climate, and probability of temperature given a jaguar (from Polly & Head, 2015).


Goswami, A., J. B. Smaers, C. Soligo, and P. D. Polly. 2014. The macroevolutionary consequences of phenotypic integration: from development to deep time. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 369: 20130254. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2014. Trait-based extinction catches the Red Queen napping during the Cambrian. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA,111: 16240-16241. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. and S. Sarwar. 2014. Extinction, extirpation, and exotics: effects on the correlation between traits and environment at the continental level. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 51: 209-226. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2014. Issues in Paleobiology. In: M. Sánchez-Villagra and N. MacLeod (eds), Issues in Paleobiology. Scidinge Hall Verlag: Zürich, Switzerland. [PDF]

Rarefaction design to test ecometric patterns in the fossil record if species sampling error is random by locality (from Polly & Sarwar, 2014). 


Gómez-Robles, A., J. M. Bermúdez de Castro, J.-L. Arsuaga, E. Carbonell, and P. D. Polly. 2013. No known hominin species matches the expected dental morphology of the last common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 110: 18196-18201. [PDF]

Rödder D., A. M. Lawing, M. Flecks, F. Ahmadzadeh, J. Dambach, J. O. Engler, J. C. Habel, T. Hartmann, D. Hörnes, F. Ihlow, K. Schidelko, D. Stiels, and P. D. Polly. 2013. Evaluating the significance of paleophylogeographic species distribution models in reconstructing Quaternary range-shifts of nearctic chelonians. PLoS ONE, 8(10): e72855. [Open Access] [PDF] [Supplemental Files] [Animated Paleophylogeographic Maps]

Grossnickle, D.M. and P.D. Polly. 2013. Mammal disparity decreases during the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, 280: 20132110. [PDF] [Supplemental Data]

Cardini, A. and P.D. Polly. 2013. Larger mammals have longer faces because of size-related constraints on skull form. Nature Communications, 4, art. 2458: 1-7. [PDF] [Supplemental animations]

Polly, P.D., A.V. Polyakov, V.B. Ilyashenko, S.S. Onischenko, T.A. White, N.A. Shchipanov, N.S. Bulatova, S. Pavlova, P.M. Borodin, and J.B. Searle. 2013. Phenotypic variation across chromosomal hybrid zones of the Common shrew (Sorex araneus) indicates reduced gene flow. PLoS One, 8(7): e67455. [Open Access] [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2013. Evolution: Stuck between the teeth. Nature, 497: 325–326. [PDF]

Polly, P. D., A. M. Lawing, A.-C. Fabre, and A. Goswami. 2013. Phylogenetic principal components analysis and geometric morphometrics. Hystrix, 24: 1-9. [PDF]

Smith, M.R. and P.D. Polly.  2013.  A reevaluation of the Harrodsburg Crevice Fauna (Late Pleistocene of Indiana, USA) and the climatic implication of its mammals.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33: 410-420. [PDF][Supplemental Data]

Uhen, M.D., A.D. Barnosky, B. Bills, J. Blois, M.T. Carrano, M.A. Carrasco, G.M. Erickson, J.T. Eronen, M. Fortelius, R.W. Graham, E.C. Grimm, M.A. O’Leary, A. Mast, W.H. Piel, P.D. Polly, and L.K. Säilä.  2013.  From card catalogs to computers:  databases in vertebrate paleontology.  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 33: 13-28. [PDF]

Topalov, K., A. Schimmelmann, P.D. Polly, P.E. Sauer, and M. Lowry. 2013. Environmental, trophic, and ecological factors influencing bone collagen δ2H.  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 111: 88-104. [PDF]

Rarefaction design to test ecometric patterns in the fossil record Phenotypic cline in skull shape across a hybrid zone between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) (from Polly et al., 2013). 


Goswami, A., P.D. Polly, O.B. Mock, and M.R. Sánchez Villagra. 2012. Shape, variance, and integration during craniogenesis: contrasting marsupial and placental mammals. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 25: 862-872. [PDF]

Lawing, A.M., J.J. Head, and P.D. Polly. 2012. The ecology of morphology: the ecometrics of locomotion and macroenvironment in North American snakes. Pp. 117-146 in J. Louys (ed), Paleontology in Ecology and Conservation. Springer-Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg. [PDF] [Supplemental Appendix]

Lawing, A. M., J. M. Meik, and P.D. Polly. 2012. Climate and competition shape species borders: a study of Panamint (Crotalus stephensi) and Speckled (Crotalus mitchellii) Rattlesnakes. ISRN Zoology,528745: 1-6. [PDF]

Gómez-Robles, A. and P. D. Polly. 2012. Morphological integration in the hominin dentition: evolutionary, developmental, and functional factors. Evolution, 66: 1024-1043. [PDF]

Topalov, K., A. Schimmelmann, P. D. Polly, and P. E. Sauer. 2012. Stable isotopes applications in bone collagen, with emphasis on deuterium/hydrogen ratios. Pp. 141-162 in C.J.R. Verbeek (ed), Products and Applications of Biopolymers. InTech: Rijeka, Croatia. [PDF]

Polly, P.D. 2012. Measuring the evolution of body size in mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109: 4027-4028. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2012. Movement adds bite to the evolutionary morphology of mammalian teeth. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10: 69, 1-3.  [PDF]

Correlation fields in the hominin postcanine dentition (from Gómez-Robles & Polly, 2012). 


Lawing, A. M. and P. D. Polly. 2011. Pleistocene climate, phylogeny, and climate envelope models: an integrative approach to better understand species' response to climate change. PLoS ONE, 16: e28554 [PDF] [Supplemental animated geographic models]

Polly, P. D., J. T. Eronen, M. Fred, G. P. Dietl, V. Mosbrugger, C. Scheidegger, D. C. Frank, J. Damuth, N. C. Stenseth, and M. Fortelius. 2011. History matters: ecometrics and integrative climate change biology. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 278: 1121-1130. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. and J. T. Eronen. 2011. Mammal associations in the Pleistocene of Britain: implications of ecological niche modelling and a method for reconstrucing palaeoclimate. Pp. 279-304 in N. Ashton, S. G. Lewis, and C. Stringer (eds.), The Ancient Human Occupation of Britain. Elsevier.  [PDF]

Polly, P. D. and C. B. Stringer. 2011. The Ancient Human Occupation of Britain (AHOB) Database. In R. Macchiarelli and G-C. Weniger (ed.) Pleistocene Databases: Acquisition, Storing, Sharing. Wissenschaftliche Schriften des Neanderthal Museums, 4: 51-60. [PDF]

Polly, P. D., L. Killick, M. Ruddy. 2011. Using left-right asymmetry to estimate non-genetic variability in vole teeth (Arvicolinae, Muridae, Rodentia). Palaeontologia Electronica, 14.3.41A. [PDF]

Johnson, L. J., J. A. Cotton, C. P. Lichtenstein, G. S. Elgar, R. A. Nichols, P. D. Polly, and S. C. Le Comber. 2011. Stops making sense: translational trade-offs and stop codon reassignment. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11: 227. [PDF]

Bose, R., C. L. Schneider, L. R. Leighton, and P. D. Polly. 2011. Influence of atrypid morphological shape on Devonian episkeletobiont assemblages from the lower Genshaw Formation of the Traverse Group of Michigan: a geometric morphometric approach. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 310: 427-441. [PDF]

Ksepka, D.T., M.J. Benton, M.T.Carrano, M.A. Gandolfo, J.J. Head, E.J. Hermsen, W.G. Joyce, K.S. Lamm, J.S.L. Patané, M.J. Phillips, P.D. Polly, J.L. Ware, R.C.M. Warnock, M. van Tuinen, and J.F. Parham. 2011. Synthesizing and databasing fossil calibrations: divergence dating and beyond. Biology Letters,  7: 801-803. [PDF]

Paleotemperature in the British Quaternary estimated from fossil mammal faunas.  (from Polly & Eronen, 2011).


Polly, P.D. 2010. Tiptoeing through the trophics: geographic variation in carnivoran locomotor ecomorphology in relation to environment. Pp. 374-410 in A. Goswami and A. Friscia (eds.), Carnivoran Evolution: New Views on Phylogeny, Form, and Function. [PDF] [Grid Data]

Eronen, J. T., P. D. Polly, M. Fred, J. Damuth, D. C. Frank, V. Mosbrugger, C. Scheidegger, N. C. Stenseth, and M. Fortelius. 2010. Ecometrics: The traits that bind the past and present together. Integrative Zoology, 5: 88-101. [PDF]

Goswami, A. and P. D. Polly. 2010 . Methods for studying morphological integration, modularity and covariance evolution. In J. Alroy and G. Hunt (eds.), Quantitative Methods in Paleobiology. Paleontological Society Short Course, October 30th, 2010. The Paleontological Society Papers, 16: 213-243. [PDF] [see Software page for accompanying Mathematica add-in]

Goswami, A. and P. D. Polly. 2010. The influence of character correlations on phylogenetic analyses: a case study of the carnivoran cranium. Pp. 141-164 in A. Goswami and A. Friscia (eds.), Carnivoran Evolution: New Views on Phylogeny, Form, and Function. Cambridge University Press. [PDF]

Goswami, A. and P. D. Polly. 2010. The influence of modularity on cranial morphological disparity in Carnivora and Primates (Mammalia). PLoS One, 5, e9517: 1-8. [PDF]

Lawing, A. M. and P. D. Polly. 2010. Geometric morphometrics: recent applications to the study of evolution and development. Journal of Zoology, 280: 1-7. [PDF]

Cardini, A., S. Elton, J. A. F. Diniz-Filho, and P. D. Polly. 2010. Spatial data analysis and ecomorphology using geometric morphometrics: clines in skull size and shape in a widespread African arboreal monkey. Pp. 191-217 in A. M. T. Elewa (ed), Morphometrics for Nonmorphometricians, Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences, Volume 124. Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands. [PDF]

Bose, R., C. Schneider, P. D. Polly, and M. M. Yacobucci. 2010. Ecological Interactions between Rhipidomella (Orthides, Brachiopoda) and its endoskeletobionts and predators in the Middle Devonian Dundee Formation of Ohio, USA. Palaios, 25: 196-208. [PDF]

Poroshin, E.A., P.D. Polly, and J.M. Wójcik. 2010. Climate and morphological change on decadal scales: Multiannual variation in the common shrew (Sorex araneus L.) in northeast Russia. Acta Theriologica, 55: 193-202. [PDF]

Relationship between correlation in continuous underlying trait and associated discrete characters on phylogenetic tree (from Goswami & Polly, 2010).


Head, J. J., J. I. Bloch, A. K. Hastings, J. R. Bourque, E. Cadena, F. Herrera, P. D. Polly, and C. A. Jaramillo. 2009. Giant boine snake from a Paleocene Neotropical rainforest indicates hotter past equatorial temperatures. Nature, 457: 715-718. [PDF] [Supplementary Information] [Matt Huber's News & Views]

Cardini A., D. Nagorsen, P. O'Higgins, P. D. Polly, R. W. Thorington Jr., and P. Tongiorgi. 2009. Detecting biological distinctiveness using geometric morphometrics: an example case from the Vancouver Island marmot. Ethology, Ecology and Evolution, 21: 209-223. [PDF]

Schutz, H., P. D. Polly, J. D. Krieger and R. P. Guralnick. 2009. Differential sexual dimorphism of body regions: a case study examining the cranium and pelvis of Gray foxes (Urocyon). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 96: 339-353. [PDF]

Paleothermometer based on maximum size of ectothermic reptiles (from Head et al., 2009).


Polly, P. D. 2008. Adaptive Zones and the Pinniped Ankle: A 3D Quantitative Analysis of Carnivoran Tarsal Evolution. Pp. 165-194 in (E. Sargis and M. Dagosto, Eds.) Mammalian Evolutionary Morphology: A Tribute to Frederick S. Szalay. Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands. [PDF] [PowerPoint file with animated figures]

Polly, P. D. 2008. Developmental dynamics and G-matrices: Can morphometric spaces be used to model evolution and development? Evolutionary Biology, 35: 83-96. [PDF]

Atar, M., R. Yasmin, R. Sharma, S. C. Le Comber, P. Verry, and P. D. Polly. 2008. Of mice and mutations: phenotypic effects of the diabetic db/db and ob/ob mutations on the skull and teeth of mice. European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry, 9: 37-40. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. and N. Macleod. 2008. Locomotion in fossil carnivora: an application of eigensurface analysis for morphometric comparison of 3D surfaces. Palaeontologia Electronica, 11.2.8A. [PDF][]

Ancestral reconstructions of carnivore calcaneal form and function (from Polly, 2008).


Polly, P. D. 2007. Development with a Bite. News & Views. Nature, 449: 413-415. [PDF] [Data and Supplemental Figures]

Polly, P. D. 2007. Limbs in mammalian evolution. Chapter 15, pp. 245-268, in Fins into Limbs: Evolution, Development, and Transformation, Brian K Hall (ed.). University of Chicago Press: Chicago. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2007. Phylogeographic differentiation in Sorex araneus: morphology in relation to geography and karyotype. Russian Journal of Theriology, 6: 73-84. [PDF]

Gündüz, İ, M Jaarola, C. Tez, C. Yeniyurt, P. D. Polly, and J. B. Searle. 2007. Multigenic and morphometric differentiation of ground squirrels (Spermophilus, Sciuridae, Rodentia) in Anatolia, with a description of a new species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 43: 916-935. [PDF]

Gündüz, İ, M Jaarola, C. Tez, C. Yeniyurt, P. D. Polly, and J. B. Searle. 2007. Spermophilus taurensis Günduz et al. 2007 and S. torosensis Özkurt et al., 2007 (Scuiridae, Rodentia) are synonyms for the same species of Ground squirrel from the Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey. Zootaxa, 1663: 67-68. [PDF]

Cardini, A., R. W. Thorington, Jr., and P. D. Polly. 2007. Evolutionary acceleration in the most endangered mammal of Canada: speciation and divergence in the Vancouver Island marmot (Rodentia, Sciuridae). Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 20: 1833-1846. [PDF]

Head, J. J. and P. D. Polly. 2007. Dissociation of somatic growth from segmentation drives gigantism in snakes. Biology Letters, 3: 296-298. [PDF

Wójcik, J. M., P. D. Polly, A. M. Wójcik, and M. D. Sikorski. 2007. Epigenetic variation of the common shrew, Sorex araneus, in different habitats. Russian Journal of Theriology, 6: 43-49. [PDF]

Spermophilus taurensis, a new species of ground squirrel from Anatolia, described by Günduz et al., 2007 (photo by Islam Günduz).


Polly, P. D., G. D. Wesley-Hunt, R. E. Heinrich, G. Davis, and P. Houde. 2006. Earliest known carnivoran auditory bulla and support for a recent origin of crown-group Carnivora (Eutheria, Mammalia). Palaeontology, 49: 1019-1027. [PDF] [Supplementary Movie File 1 and File 2] [Nexus file for phylogenetic analysis]

Polly, P.D. 2006. Genetics, development, and palaeontology interlock. Heredity, 96: 206-207. [PDF]

Wójcik, A. M., P. D. Polly, M. D. Sikorski, and J. M. Wójcik. 2006. Selection in a cycling population: differential response among skeletal traits. Evolution, 60: 1925-1935. [PDF]

Rychlik, L., G. Ramalhinho, and P. D. Polly. 2006. Response to competition and environmental factors: skull, mandible, and tooth shape in Polish Water shrews (Neomys, Soricidae, Mammalia). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, 44: 339-351. [PDF]

Slicethrough of the auditory region of Viverravus using x-ray microtomography (from Polly et al., 2006).


Caumul, R. and P. D. Polly. 2005. Phylogenetic and environmental components of morphological variation: skull, mandible and molar shape in marmots (Marmota, Rodentia). Evolution, 59: 2460-2472. [PDF]

Polly, P.D. 2005. Development, Geography, and Sample Size in P matrix evolution: molar-shape change in island populations of Sorex araneus. Evolution and Development, 7: 29-41. [PDF

Polly, P.D., S.C. Le Comber, and T.M. Burland. 2005. On the occlusal fit of tribosphenic molars: Are we underestimating species diversity in the Mesozoic? Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 12: 285-301. [PDF]

Molar development, covariance, and evolution (from Polly, 2005).


Polly, P. D. 2004. On the simulation of the evolution of morphological shape: multivariate shape under selection and drift. Palaeontologia Electronica, 7.2.7A: 1-28. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. and J. J. Head. 2004. Maximum-likelihood identification of fossils: taxonomic identification of Quaternary marmots (Rodentia, Mammalia) and identification of vertebral position in the pipesnake Cylindrophis (Serpentes, Reptilia). In: Elewa A. M. T. (ed.): Morphometrics-Applications in Biology and Paleontology. Springer-Verlag: Heidelberg, Germany. Pp. 197-222. [PDF]

A morphological clock? Brownian-like changes in molar morphology among species of Sorex (from Polly, 2004).


Polly, P. D. 2003. Paleophylogeography of Sorex araneus: molar shape as a morphological marker for fossil shrews. Mammalia, 68: 233-243. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2003. Paleophylogeography: the tempo of geographic differentiation in marmots (Marmota). Journal of Mammalogy, 84: 369-384. [PDF]

Paleophylogeography of marmots (from Polly, 2003). 


Polly, P. D. and R. L. Spang.  2002.  History of paleontology.  Pp. 69-97 in B. S. Baigrie (ed.), History of Modern Science and Mathematics, Vol. 4, Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2002. Phylogenetic tests for differences in shape and the importance of divergence times: Eldredge's enigma explored. In: N. MacLeod and P. Forey (eds.), Morphology, Shape, and Phylogenetics, Taylor and Francis, Inc., pp. 220-246. [PDF]

Iguanodon looking into the windows of a Paris house from Camille Flammarion’s 1888 Le Monde avant la création de l’homme (from Polly & Spang, 2002).


Polly, P. D. 2001. Paleontology and the comparative method: Ancestral node reconstructions versus observed node values. American Naturalist, 157: 596-609. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 2001. On morphological clocks and paleophylogeography: Towards a timescale for Sorex hybrid zones. Genetica, 112/113: 339-357. [PDF]

Polly, P. D., J. J. Head, and M. J. Cohn. 2001. Testing modularity and dissociation: the evolution of regional proportions in snakes (Serpentes, Vertebrata), pp. 305-335 in: M. Zelditch (ed.), Beyond Heterochrony: The Evolution of Development. John Wiley & Sons. [PDF]

Kordikova, E. G., P. D. Polly, V. A. Alifanov, Z. Rocek, G. F. Gunnell, and A. O Averianov. 2001. Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary microvertebrates from the North Eastern Aral Sea Region of Kazakhstan. Journal of Paleontology, 75: 390-400. [PDF]

Early development and segmentation (from Polly et al., 2001). 


Polly, P. D. 2000. Development and evolution occlude: evolution of development in mammalian teeth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science,97: 14019-14021. [PDF]

Mathur, A. K. and P. D. Polly. 2000. The evolution of enamel microstructure: How important is amelogenin? Journal of Mammalian Evolution, 7: 23-42. [PDF]

Map between the enamel knot developmental cascade and the structure of a mammalian molar (from Polly, 2000).


Polly, P. D.  1999.  Selection. In: R. Springer (ed.), Encyclopedia of Paleontology.  Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago, pp. 1084-1086. [PDF]

Polly, P. D.  1999.  Ivan F. Schmalhausen.  In: R. Springer (ed.), Encyclopedia of Paleontology.  Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago, pp. 1068-1069. [PDF]

Polly, P. D.  1999.  Ivan I. Schmalhausen. In: R. Springer (ed.), Encyclopedia of Paleontology.  Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago, pp. 1069-1070. [PDF]

Polly, P. D.  1999.  Creodonta.  In: R. Springer (ed.), Encyclopedia of Paleontology.  Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago, pp. 316-317. [PDF]

Polly, P. D.  1999.  Alpheus Hyatt.  In: R. Springer (ed.), Encyclopedia of Paleontology.  Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago, pp. 591-59. [PDF]


Polly, P. D. 1998. Cope's Rule. Science, 282(5386): 50-51. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 1998. Variability, selection, and constraints: development and evolution in viverravid (Carnivora, Mammalia) molar morphology. Paleobiology, 24: 409-429. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 1998. Variability in mammalian dentitions: size-related bias in the coefficient of variation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 64: 83-99. [PDF]

Cusps and developmental cascade of the lower third molar of Didymictis, an extinct carnivore from 55 million years ago (from Polly, 1998).  


Polly, P. D.  1997.  Ancestry and species definition in paleontology: a stratocladistic analysis of Viverravidae (Carnivora, Mammalia) from Wyoming.  Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, 30: 1-53. [PDF]

Polly, P. D.  1997.  Cross-domain database searching at The Natural History Museum. pp. 443-441 in A. Scammell (ed.), ASLIB Handbook of Special Librarianship and Information Work, 7th Edition. Association for Information Management: London. [PDF]

Diagrammatic illustration of a stratocladistic analysis (from Polly, 1997).


Polly, P. D.  1996.  The skeleton of Gazinocyon vulpeculus n. gen. and comb. (Hyaenodontidae, Creodonta) and the cladistic relationships of Hyaenodontidae (Eutheria, Mammalia).  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, 16: 303-319. [PDF] [Nexus File for Phylogenetic Analysis][Hennig86 File for Phylogenetic Analysis]

Holroyd, P. A., E. L. Simons, T. M. Bown, P. D. Polly, and M. J. Krause.  1996.  New Records of Terrestrial Mammals from the Upper Eocene Qasr El Sagha Formation, Fayum Depression, Egypt.  Palaeovertebrata, 25:175-192. [PDF]

Humeri from three hyaenodontid creodont species (from Polly, 1996).


Padian, K., D. Lindberg, and P. D. Polly.  1994.  Cladistics and the fossil record: the uses of history.  Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 22: 63-91. [PDF]


Polly, P. D. and B. Lange-Badré.  1993.  A new genus Eurotherium (Mammalia, Creodonta) in reference to taxonomic problems with some Eocene hyaenodontids from Eurasia.  Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences (Paris), série II, 317: 991-996. [PDF]

Polly, P. D.  1993.  Hyaenodontidae (Creodonta, Mammalia) from the early Eocene Four Mile Fauna and their biostratigraphic implications.  PaleoBios, 14(4): 1-10. [PDF]

Polly, P. D. 1993. Hyaenodontidae (Creodonta, Mammalia) and the Position of Systematics in Evolutionary Biology. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of California at Berkeley. [PDF]

Basicranium and ear region of the creodont Hyaenodon exiguus from Quercy, France (from Polly, 1993).